ABC data – antecedent behavior consequence. This is the basics of uncovering the root of a problematic behavior.
Antecedent – what happened before the start of a behavior
Behavior – the behavior being discussed
Consequence – whatever occurred directly following the behavior
Ex. child talks during class
Antecedent – child is bored/doesn’t understand the material
Behavior – child talks
Consequence – child is sent out of class
Consequence – this term has a general negative connotation, but in reality a consequence is whatever happened directly following something else. The consequence of something can be good or bad, desired or undesired.
Ex. the consequences of eating a good lunch is that you’ll be full, the consequences of eating is that you’ll feel nauseous
Following an ABC observation, is the reinforcement. If being sent out of class is all the child wanted, than the child was reinforced and he will most likely continue talking in class.
Reinforcement – something that keeps up a behavior. a reward of any kind. an edible, tangible, social praise (compliments …), automatic, sensory
Positive reinforcement – reinforcing a behavior by providing something desirable, ex. Candy, compliments
Negative reinforcement – unlike common belief negative reinforcement, is reinforcing a behavior by removing a negative stimuli – in easy terms, taking something unpleasant away from the child. Ex. if child is good in class teacher takes away homework assignment, free test, etc, or letting child get out of doing chores due to good behavior
Punishment – something that will decrease the chances of a behavior happening
Positive punishment – providing something undesired in response to an undesired behavior. Ex. extra schoolwork, chores, etc.
Negative punishment – removing something desired in response to an undesired behavior. ex. Extra schoolwork
In simple terms
Positive means giving something
Negative means removing something
Reinforcement – keeps up a behavior
Punishment – stops a behavior
Aversive – something undesired.
Maladaptive behavior – problematic behavior, problematic to the individual and/or to those around him. This includes aggression, SIB,
SIB – self-injurious behavior, hurting oneself, biting fingers, banging head etc
Prompt – an action, motion, gesture etc that will lead child to display desired behavior
Types of prompts. Gestural prompt, physical prompt, verbal prompt, visual prompt, position prompt.
Differentiate – see/know the difference between
Ex. child will differentiate between appropriate and inappropriate behavior
Contrive – create/foster
When working on communication skills the following terms will come up
Mand- like the word demand, it means asking/requesting something
Child asking for something, or saying the word of item he wants ex. ‘Cookie’ when he wants a cookie
Tact – labeling things, listing things,
Child saying ‘train’ when he sees a train
Intraverbals – a response to another speaker answering a question or fill-in
Ex. ‘this is a ____?’ and child responds ‘cookie’ Or responding to a question ‘what’s your name’ and child states his name